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天气术语表

GLOSSARY OF WEATHER TERMS:
A

"Absolute Humidity"
「绝对湿度」
A mass of water vapor in a given volume of air.
一定体积空气中的一团水蒸气。
"Acre Foot"
“ Acre Foot”
The amount of water needed to cover one acre under a foot of water.
一英亩在一英尺水下所需的水量。
"Adiabatic Process"
绝热过程
This is the process by which fixed relation- ships are maintained during changes in temperature, volume, and pressure in a body of air, without heat being added or removed. The change in air temperature caused by pressure changes as air rises or sinks.
这是一个过程,其中固定的关系,维持在变化的温度,体积,和压力在一个体内的空气,没有热量被增加或删除。 由压力引起的空气温度的变化,随着空气的上升或下沉而变化。
"Advection"
“平流”
Horizontal movement of any meteorological property, such as warmth or humidity.
任何气象性质的水平运动,如温度或湿度。
"Advection Fog"
“平流雾”
A type of fog caused by the movement of moist air over a cold surface, and the consequent cooling of that air to below its dew point. Sea fog is one type of advection fog that involves moist air in transport over a cold body of water.
一种雾,由潮湿空气在冷表面上的运动引起,随后使空气冷却到低于露点。 海雾是平流雾的一种,它涉及湿空气在冷水体上空的输送。
"Aeronomy"
“高空摄影”
The science of the physics and chemistry of upper atmospheres of planets, including earth.
高层大气科学研究包括地球在内的行星高层大气的物理和化学的科学。
"A Few Clouds"
《几朵云》
Scattered clouds, with clear skies dominant. Cloud cover between 1/8 and 2/8.
分散的云朵,以清澈的天空为主。 云量在1 / 8到2 / 8之间。
"Ageostrophic Flows"
“非地转流”
Air flows that move across isobars or height contours at an angle toward either high or low pressure.
在等压线或等高线上以一定角度移动的气流。
"Air Mass"
“气团”
In meteorology, an extensive body of air within which the conditions of temperature and moisture in a horizontal plane are essentially uniform.
在气象学中,一种广阔的空气体,其中水平面内的温度和湿度条件基本上是一致的。
"Altimeter"
「高度计」
A special type of aneroid barometer used in airplanes to measure altitude.
无液气压表一种特殊类型的无液气压表,用于飞机上测量高度。
"Altitude, Density"
高度,密度
The altitude in the standard atmosphere at which the air has the same density as the air at the point of question. An aircraft will have the same performance characteristics as it would have in a standard atmosphere at this altitude.
在标准大气中的高度,在这个高度上,空气的密度与问题点的空气的密度相同。 一架飞机将有相同的性能特点,因为它会在一个标准的大气层在这个高度。
"Altitude, Pressure"
高度,压力
The altitude in the standard atmosphere at which the pressure is the same as at the point if question. Since an altimeter operates solely on pressure, this is the uncorrected altitude indicated by an altimeter set at standard sea level pressure of 29.92 inches or 1013 millibars.
标准大气中的高度,在这个高度上,压力与问题所指的点相同。 由于高度计只依靠压力工作,因此高度计在标准海平面压力为29.92英寸或1013毫巴时所显示的未校正高度。
"A Mix of Sun and Clouds"
《太阳与云彩的混合》
At times there will be more clouds than sun, and at other times there will be more sun than clouds. Cloud cover between 3/8 and 7/8.
有时候云比太阳多,有时候太阳比云多。 云量在3 / 8到7 / 8之间。
"Anemometer"
”风速表”
An instrument for measuring wind speed.
风速计测量风速的仪器。
"Aneroid"
“空盒子”
Not using liquid. An aneroid barometer has a needle connected to the top of a small box that has had some of its air taken out. A change in air pressure moves the box lid up and down, and this moves the needle. The air pressure can be read from the needle's position on a scale.
不使用液体。 无液气压表的指针连接在一个小盒子的顶部,这个小盒子已经抽出了一些空气。 气压的变化使箱盖上下移动,这就移动了指针。 气压可以从指针的位置读出。
"Aneroid Barometer"
”空盒气压计”
A device to measure air pressure that uses an aneroid, which is sealed, flexible metal bellows with some air removed that expands and contracts with air pressure changes.
一种测量空气压力的装置,使用密封的金属波纹管,去除一些空气,随着空气压力的变化而膨胀和收缩。
"Antarctic Circle"
“南极圈”
Latitude 66 degrees, 32 minutes south. Area to the south is the Antarctic.
北纬66度,南纬32分。 南面的区域是南极洲。
"Anticyclone"
「反气旋」
An area of high pressure. The winds of an anticyclone blow in a spiral outward from the center.
高压区高压区。 反气旋风从中心以螺旋形向外吹动的反气旋风。
"ASOS"
“ ASOS”
Automated Surface Observation System. A suite of weather instruments that automatically report certain weather conditions, such as sky cover, temperature, and wind.
自动地面观测系统。 一套自动报告特定天气状况的气象仪器,如天气覆盖情况、气温和风速。
"Atmosphere"
“氛围”
The layer of gases, or air, that surrounds the earth. The atmosphere is made up mostly of the gases nitrogen and oxygen.
气层环绕地球的一层气体或空气。 大气层主要由氮气和氧气组成。
"Atmospheric Pressure"
“大气压力”
Also called barometric pressure. The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a consequence of gravitational attraction exerted upon the "column" of air lying directly above the point in question.
也叫气压。 空气压力大气压力作为重力吸引的结果施加在位于有关点正上方的空气柱上的压力。

B

"Back-Door Cold Front"
「后门冷锋」
A cold front that moves from the northeast, instead of the more usual northwest or north, in the eastern United States.
冷锋从美国东部的东北方向而不是更常见的西北或北方向移动的冷锋。
"Barograph"
“ Barograph”
A device for recording air pressure.
记录空气压力的装置。
"Barometer"
「晴雨表」
A device used for measuring air pressure.
气压计用于测量空气压力的装置。
"Barometric Pressure"
“大气压力”
The pressure exerted by the weight of the column of air above a given point, expressed in pounds per square inch, inches of mercury, millibars, or kilopascals.
气压,压力一定点以上空气柱的重量所产生的压力,以磅每平方英寸、英寸水银、毫巴或千帕斯卡表示。
"Beaufort Wind Scale"
「蒲福风级」
Scale used to classify wind speed, devised in 1805 by British Admiral Francis Beaufort to classify winds at sea.
用于分类风速的比例尺,由英国海军上将弗朗西斯·蒲福于1805年设计,用于分类海上风。
"Biosphere"
“生物圈”
The Earth's living things.
地球上的生物。
"Blizzard"
《暴风雪》
Snow falling with winds faster than 35 mph and visibility of one-quarter mile or less over an extended time period.
风速超过每小时35英里的降雪,能见度在延长的时间内不超过四分之一英里。
"Blizzard Conditions"
《暴风雪天气》
A storm with an air temperature below -1 F(-18 C), with snowfall resulting in significant accumulations, and strong winds. The winds will produce severe wind chill values, blowing snow and whiteouts. Visibility will be severely reduced and roadways can be slippery, resulting in very dangerous driving conditions. Stay home.
一种风暴,气温低于 -1华氏度(- 18摄氏度) ,降雪导致大量积雪和强风。 风将产生严重的风寒值,吹雪和雪盲。 能见度将严重降低,道路可能会打滑,导致非常危险的行车条件。 待在家里。
"Blowing Snow" Created when high winds lift snow from the surface and blow it to heights of 6 feet (2 meters) or more. No snow will be falling, but visibility may be severely reduced and roadways can be slippery.
“吹雪”产生于大风将雪从表面抬起,并将其吹到6英尺(2米)或更高的高度。 不会下雪,但是能见度可能会严重降低,道路可能会很滑。
C

"Calcium Magnesium Acetate"
「乙酸镁」
A chemical compound used used to melt ice.
一种用来融化冰的化合物。
"Carbon Dioxide"
“二氧化碳”
A colorless, odorless gas given out by animals when they breath. This gas is taken in by plants, which give out oxygen.
一种无色无味的气体,由动物呼吸时释放出来。 这种气体被植物吸收,然后释放出氧气。
"Ceilometer"
「天花板」
A cloud height measuring system. It projects light on the cloud, detects the reflection by a photoelectric cell, and determines eight by triangulation.
云高测量系统。 它将光线投射到云层上,通过光电管探测反射,然后通过三角测量确定八个反射。
"Celsius Temperature Scale"
「摄氏温标」
Abbreviated C. A temperature scale with zero degrees as the melting point of pure ice and 100 degrees as the boiling point of pure water at standard sea level atmospheric pressure.
缩写 c。 以零度作为纯冰的熔点,以100度作为纯水在标准海平面大气压下的沸点的温标。
"Chaos Theory"
“混沌理论”
The theory that some systems, such as weather, are ultimately unpredictable because of the effects of small-scale events that cant be included in the prediction equations.
一种理论,认为某些系统,如天气,最终是不可预测的,因为小规模事件的影响,不能包括在预测方程。
"Chinook"
“奇努克”
A warm, dry foehn wind blowing down the eastern slopes the Rocky Mountains over the adjacent plains in the United States and Canada.
一种温暖干燥的焚风,从美国和加拿大相邻平原的落基山脉东部斜坡吹下。
"Chinook Effect"
“奇努克效应”
The temperature response to down slope winds. Most often used in the context of the Rocky Mountains, Chinook effects can increase surface temperatures by 20 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit in as little as 15 minutes. The temperature increase is the result of subsiding air, which heats up and lowers humidities as it flows down the leeward slopes of a prominent mountain or ridge.
下坡风的温度响应。 最常用于落基山脉的奇努克效应可以在短短15分钟内使地表温度升高20到40华氏度。 温度上升是下沉空气的结果,下沉空气在沿着明显山脉或山脊的背风坡向下流动时加热并降低湿度。
"Chlorofluorocarbons"
「含氯氟烃」
Also known as CFC. Man-made substance used as coolant and computer-chip cleaner, which have been shown to destroy stratospheric ozone when they break down.
也被称为 CFC。 用作冷却剂和计算机芯片清洁剂的人造物质,当它们分解时会破坏平流层中的臭氧。
"Chromosphere"
《色球层》
A thin layer of gas on the sun's surface.
太阳表面的一层薄薄的气体。
"Cirrocumulus"
“卷积云”
A cirriform cloud appearing as a thin sheet of small white puffs resembling flakes or patches of cotton without shadows; sometimes confused with altocumulus.
白云一种圆环状的云,看起来像薄薄的一片白色的小团,类似于没有阴影的薄片或棉花片; 有时与高积云相混淆。
"Cirrostratus"
“卷层云”
A cirriform cloud appearing as a whitish veil, usually fibrous, sometimes smooth; often produces halo phenomena; may totally cover the sky.
白云一种圆环状的云,呈白色面纱状,通常呈纤维状,有时光滑; 常产生晕轮现象; 可完全覆盖天空。
"Cirrus"
《卷云》
A cirriform cloud in the form of thin, white feather-like clouds in patches or narrow bands; have a fibrous and/or silky sheen; large ice crystals often trail downward a considerable vertical distance in fibrous, slanted, or irregularly curved wisps called mares tails.
卷云一种卷状云,形状为薄而白的羽毛状云,成片或成窄带状; 有纤维状和 / 或丝状光泽; 大冰晶通常以纤维状、倾斜或不规则弯曲的束状向下延伸相当长的垂直距离,称为母马尾巴。
"Clear Air Turbulence"
「晴空湍流」
Abbreviated CAT. Turbulence encountered in air where no clouds are present; more popularly applied to high level turbulence associated with wind shear.
简称 CAT。 在没有云层的空气中遇到的湍流; 通常应用于与风切变有关的高层湍流。
"Clear"
「安全」
Skies will be almost totally clear, perhaps with a few small light clouds visible. Cloud cover will be between 0 and 1/10. Clear is the nighttime term equivalent to "Sunny".
天空几乎是完全晴朗的,也许还能看到一些小小的轻云。 云量将在0到1 / 10之间。 晴是夜间的术语,相当于“晴”。
"Clearing"
「结算」
Most of the sky will be covered in clouds, but you will see more and more sunshine throughout the forecast period. It will take only a portion of the period for the sky to become less than half covered in clouds.
大部分的天空会被云层覆盖,但是在整个预报期间你会看到越来越多的阳光。 只需要一段时间,天空就会不到一半被云层覆盖。
"Clear with Cloudy Periods"
「晴时多云」
The nighttime equivalent of "Sunny with Cloudy Periods".
相当于夜间的“晴天阴天”。
"Climate"
「气候」
An established, distinct pattern of weather conditions that exists in a place over a period of many years; Average weather over a long time period, usually 30 years.
多年平均气候一个地方长期存在的确定的、明显的天气状况模式; 长期的平均天气状况,通常为30年。
"Climate Model"
「气候模型」
Mathematical model containing equations that describe climatic interactions.
包含描述气候相互作用方程的数学模型。
"Cloud"
《云》
Moisture in the air that has condensed onto particles of dust or smoke.
空气中的水分凝结成灰尘或烟雾微粒的空气中的水分。
"Cloud Seeding"
《人工降雨》
The use of silver iodide, dry ice or other substances to enhance precipitation.
利用碘化银、干冰或其他物质来增加沉淀。
"Clouding Over"
《乌云密布》(Clouding Over)
Skies will be mostly clear, but more and more cloud cover will develop throughout the forecast period. The sky will become completely overcast before the end of the forecast period.
天空基本上是晴朗的,但在整个预报期间,云量会越来越多。 在预报期结束之前,天空将变得完全阴沉。
"Cloudy"
“多云”
No sunshine visible. Cloud cover will be 5/8 or more.
没有阳光,云量将达到或超过5 / 8。
"Cloudy with Clear Breaks"
“多云晴间”
The nighttime equivalent of "Cloudy with Sunny Breaks".
相当于夜间的“阴天晴天”。
"Cloudy with Drizzle"
“多云细雨”
The sky will be overcast and a heavy mist or very light continuous rain is expected to fall. Your slow pulse wipers will be too fast in clearing the windshield.
天空将是阴天,预计会有大雾或很小的连续雨。 你的慢脉冲雨刷器在清除挡风玻璃时会太快。
"Cloudy with Flurries"
「多云夹杂小雪」
The cloud cover will be as described for "Cloudy", and the precipitation light. The flurries will be short-lived and intermittent, and will not amount to any significant accumulation on the ground. Visibility will be reduced, but roadways will not generally be slippery.
云量将被描述为“多云” ,而降水量较少。 小雪将是短暂和间歇性的,并且不会在地面上形成任何显著的积累。 能见度会降低,但道路一般不会打滑。
"Cloudy with Freezing Drizzle"
“多云冻毛毛雨”
Similar to freezing rain, but the size of the supercooled rain drops will be less than .02 inch diameter (0.5 mm). The effects will be the same as for "Freezing Rain", but the buildup of ice will be slower.
与冻雨相似,但过冷雨滴的直径小于0.02英寸(0.5毫米)。 其影响将与“冰雨”相同,但结冰的速度会慢一些。
"Cloudy with Freezing Rain"
“多云冰雨”
The sky condition will be as described above, with precipitation consisting of supercooled liquid rain drops that instantly freeze on contact. Visibility will generally be good, but roadways will be extremely slippery and dangerous. Freezing rain will create a layer of ice on bare surfaces and existing snow.
天空状况将如上所述,降水由过冷的液体雨滴组成,雨滴接触后会立即冻结。 能见度通常会很好,但是道路会非常滑,非常危险。 冰雨会在裸露的表面和现有的雪上形成一层冰。
"Cloudy with Isolated Flurries"
「零星多云」
The cloud cover will be as described for "Cloudy", and the precipitation very light. The flurries will be brief and intermittent, and will not amount to any significant accumulation on the ground. Visibility will be reduced, but roadways will not generally be slippery.
云层覆盖将被描述为“多云” ,降水非常轻。 小雪将是短暂和间歇性的,不会达到任何重要的积累在地面上。 能见度会降低,但道路一般不会打滑。
"Cloudy with Light Rain"
「多云小雨」
The sky will be overcast and the precipitation will be strong enough to get things wet in a short time. The rain will interfere with outdoor activities. Puddles will form quickly and water may run down the expressways, causing slippery road conditions. Precipitation will persist throughout the forecast period.
天空将是阴沉的,降水将是强大到足以在短时间内把事情弄湿。 这场雨会妨碍户外活动。 水坑很快就会形成,水可能会顺着高速公路流下,导致路面湿滑。 降水将在整个预报期间持续存在。
"Cloudy with Light Snow"
“小雪多云”
The cloud cover will be as described for "Cloudy", the precipitation light. The snow will be continuous but will not usually amount to any significant accumulations for the forecast period. Visibility will be reduced and roadways can be slippery, depending on the duration of the snow.
云量将被描述为“多云” ,降水量较少。 积雪将是连续的,但在预报期间通常不会形成任何明显的积雪。 能见度将降低,道路可能会打滑,这取决于雪的持续时间。
"Cloudy with Periods of Rain"
“多云,部分时间有雨”
The sky will be overcast and the precipitation strong enough to get things wet in a short time, but the rain may also stop for a short period of time. The rain will interfere with outdoor activities. The ground will get wet, puddles will form, but the precipitation will be expected to cease for short periods of time over the forecast period.
天空乌云密布,降水强劲,短时间内就能把东西弄湿,但雨也可能短时间内停止。 这场雨会妨碍户外活动。 地面将变得湿润,积水将形成,但降水预计将在预报期间短时间内停止。
"Cloudy with Rain or Snow Showers"
”多云有雨或有雪阵雨”
The type of precipitation expected to fall can either be rain or snow throughout the forecast period. The precipitation starts and stops. No significant accumulations are expected. If the precipitation falls as snow, visibility will be reduced and roadways can become slippery.
在整个预报期间,预期降水的类型可以是雨或雪。 降水开始和停止。 预计不会有明显的积累。 如果降水变成雪,能见度就会降低,道路就会变得很滑。
"Cloudy with Scattered Thundershowers"
「多云及有零星雷雨」
The sky will be cloudy, with some showers or light rain possible; thunder and lightning will be associated with the precipitation. The showers or rain may be heavy for short periods of time.
天空多云,可能有阵雨或小雨,雷电与降水有关。 短时间内可能有阵雨或大雨。
"Cloudy with Showers"
“多云有骤雨”
The sky will be overcast and the strength of the precipitation will be light. The showers will be intermittent, and will generally interfere with outdoor activities. The ground will get wet.
天空将会阴沉,降水的强度将会很轻。 阵雨是间歇性的,一般会干扰户外活动。 地面会变湿。
"Cloudy with Sunny Breaks"
“晴天多云”
A least half covered in clouds, but not totally cloudy. Cloud cover will be between 5/8 to 7/8.
云层至少有一半被云层覆盖,但不是完全多云。 云量将在5 / 8到7 / 8之间。
"Cloudy with Thundershowers"
「多云有雷雨」
The sky will become cloudy with a few showers or light rain possible; thunder and lightning will be associated with the precipitation. The showers or rain may be heavy for extended periods of time.
天空将变得多云,可能有几阵骤雨或小雨,雷电将与降水有关。 长时间的阵雨或大雨可能会持续。
"Cloudy with Thunderstorms"
「多云及有雷暴」
The sky will be cloudy, with showers or light rain possible; thunder and lightning will be associated with the precipitation. The showers or rain will be heavy for extended periods of time.
天空多云,可能有阵雨或小雨,雷电与降水有关。 阵雨或大雨将持续一段时间。
"Cloudy with Wet Flurries"
「多云多雨」
The sky condition will be as for "Cloudy", with intermittent precipitation. The snow will be partially melted before reaching the ground, and will accumulate as a light dusting of wet sticky snow if it does not melt instantly on contact. Visibility will be reduced, but roadways will generally not get slippery.
天空状况为“多云” ,有间歇性降水。 雪在到达地面之前会部分融化,如果不立即融化,就会积聚成潮湿粘性雪的微尘。 能见度会降低,但道路通常不会变得光滑。
"Coastal Fog"
《海岸雾》
Fog will be expected to form near the shore line, and may cause reduced visibility on roadways near the shore.
预计海岸线附近将形成雾,并可能导致海岸附近道路上的能见度降低。
"Cold Air Damming"
「冷气筑坝」
A situation in the atlantic piedmont and coastal plain where low-level cold air is shunted southwards, ahead of an approaching cold front. High pressure to the northeast of the advancing cold front is necessary to help provide the mechanism for advecting the cold air to the south. The low-level cold air dams up against the Appalachians, hence the term. It is an event common to the fall and winter months.
大西洋山麓和沿海平原的一种情况,低层冷空气在冷锋逼近之前向南分流。 前进的冷锋东北方向的高压有助于提供冷空气向南方推进的机制。 阿巴拉契亚山脉上的低层冷空气水坝,因此而得名。 这是秋冬季节的常见事件。
"Cold Front"
「冷锋」
A warm-cold air boundary with the cold air advancing.
冷空气前进时的暖冷空气边界。
"Condense"
“浓缩”
To change from a gas or vapor to a liquid. An example is when steam condenses into water.
从气体或蒸汽变成液体。 例如,当蒸汽凝结成水时。
"Condensation"
“冷凝”
The change of a vapor to a liquid.
汽化蒸汽变成液体的过程。
"Condensation Nuclei"
“凝聚核”
Small particles in the air that attract water, and encourage condensation.
空气中的微小颗粒吸引水分,促进凝结。
"Conduction"
「传导」
Transfer of heat within a substance or from one substance to another by molecular action.
热量在物质内部或通过分子作用从一种物质到另一种物质的热量传递。
"Constant Pressure Chart"
「恒压图」
A chart of a constant pressure surface; may contain analyses of height, wind, temperature, humidity, and/or other elements.
恒压表面的图表; 可能包含高度、风、温度、湿度和 / 或其他因素的分析。
"Continental Air Mass"
“大陆气团”
An air mass that forms over land, making it generally dry. It may be warm or cold.
在陆地上形成的气团,使陆地普遍干燥。 天气可能暖和,也可能冷。
"Contour"
《等高线》
In meteorology, (1) a line of equal height on a constant pressure chart; analogous to contours on a relief map; (2) in radar meteorology, a line on a radar scope of equal echo intensity.
在气象学中,(1)在一个恒定压力图上等高的线; 类似于地形图上的等高线; (2)在雷达气象学中,雷达范围上回波强度相等的线。
"Convection"
“对流”
Transfer of heat by the movement of the heated material. In meteorology, the up and down air motions caused by heat.
通过受热物质的运动传递热量。 在气象学中,由热量引起的上下气流运动。
"Convective Storms"
“对流风暴”
Storms created by rising warm air; such as thunderstorms.
上升的暖空气造成的风暴; 如雷暴。
"Convergence"
「汇聚」
The condition that exists when the distribution of winds within a given area is such that there is a net horizontal inflow of air into the area. In convergence at lower levels, the removal of the resulting excess is accomplished by an upward movement of air; consequently, areas of low-level convergent winds are regions favorable to the occurrence of clouds and precipitation.
在给定区域内风的分布情况下存在的一种状态,即空气水平净流入该区域。 在较低水平的辐合中,由此产生的多余物质的清除是通过向上的空气运动完成的; 因此,低水平辐合风区域是有利于云和降水发生的区域。
"Coriolis Effect"
“科里奥利效应”
The apparent curving motion of anything, such as wind caused by the Earth's rotation, first described in 1835 by French scientist Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis.
任何东西表面上的弯曲运动,例如由地球自转引起的风,最早是在1835年由法国科学家 Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis 描述的。
"Corona"
“ Corona”
One layer of the sun's atmosphere. Also a circle of light around the sun or moon caused by clouds.
太阳大气层的一层。 由云层引起的围绕太阳或月亮的光圈。
"Cutoff Low"
“切断低”
An area of an upper atmosphere low pressure that is cut off from the general west-to-east wind flow.
高层大气低压区,与一般的西向东风流隔绝。
"Cryosphere"
《冰冻圈》
The Earth's ice.
地球上的冰。
"Cumulonimbus"
“积雨云”
A cumuliform cloud type; it is heavy and dense, with considerable vertical extent in the form of massive towers; often with tops in the shape of an anvil or massive plume; under the base of cumulonimbus, which often is very dark, there frequently exists virga, precipitation and low ragged clouds (scud), either merged with it or not; frequently accompanied by lightning, thunder, and sometimes hail; occasionally produces a tornado or a waterspout; the ultimate manifestation of the growth of a cumulus cloud, occasionally extending well into the atmosphere.
积雨云一种积雨云类型; 它厚重而密集,具有相当大的垂直范围,形成巨大的塔状; 通常顶部呈砧状或巨大的羽状; 在积雨云的底部,通常是非常黑暗的,经常存在环流、降水和低矮不规则的云(盾形云) ,或者与之合并或者不合并; 经常伴随着闪电、雷电,有时还有冰雹; 偶尔产生龙卷风或水龙卷风; 积雨云的最终形成,有时延伸到积雨云的大气中。
"Cumulonimbus Mamma"
“ Cumulonimbus Mamma”
A cumulonimbus cloud having hanging protuberances, like pouches, festoons, or udders, on the under side of the cloud; usually indicative of severe turbulence.
一种积雨云,在云层的下面有悬挂的突起,如囊、花边或乳房; 通常表示严重的湍流。
"Cumulus"
“积云”
A cloud in the form of individual detached domes or towers which are usually dense and well defined; develops vertically in the form of rising mounds of which the bulging upper part often resembles a cauliflower; the sunlit parts of these clouds are mostly brilliant white; their bases are relatively dark and nearly horizontal.
一种云,以独立的圆顶或塔的形式出现,通常密集且轮廓清晰; 垂直发展为隆起的山丘,其上部隆起的部分常常类似于花椰菜; 这些云的阳光部分大多是明亮的白色; 它们的底部相对较暗,几乎是水平的。
"Cyclogenesis"
“气旋发生”
Any development or strengthening of cyclonic (counterclockwise, in the northern hemisphere) circulation in the atmosphere. It is applied to the development of cyclonic circulation where it previously did not exist (commonly, the initial appearance of a low or trough).
在大气中气旋环流的任何发展或加强(逆时针方向,在北半球)。 它适用于以前不存在的气旋性环流的发展(通常是最初出现的低压或低压槽)。
"Cyclone"
「旋风」
An area of low-atmospheric-pressure with winds blowing around it, counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
一个低气压区域,周围吹着风,逆时针方向在北半球,南半球是顺时针方向。

D

"Depression"
“抑郁症”
An area of low atmospheric pressure. It is another name for a cyclone.
低气压区低气压区。它是气旋的另一个名称。
"Derechoes"
《德雷尔》(Derechoes)
Wind storms created by thunderstorms during which winds blow in straight lines.
雷暴产生的风暴,在此期间风以直线吹动。
"Dew"
“露水”
Water droplets formed by condensation of water vapor; Moisture condensation that collects on unprotected objects outdoors when the air has cooled below its saturation point.
由水蒸气凝结而形成的水滴; 当空气冷却到其饱和点以下时,水分凝结在未受保护的户外物体上。
"Dew Point"
「露点」
The temperature to which air must be cooled at constant pressure and humidity for condensation (dew) to occur, expressed in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius.
空气必须在恒定压力和湿度下冷却才能发生凝结(露)的温度,以华氏度或摄氏度表示。
"Diamond Dust"
《钻石尘埃》
Tiny ice crystals that float in the air creating pillars of light.
漂浮在空中的微小冰晶形成了光柱。
"Diurnal"
“白天”
Daily, recurrent variations in meteorological variables. Some diurnal variations at the Earth's surface includes (1) Temperature maximums near or after local noon, and temperatures minimums just before sunrise; (2) relative humidity and fog minimums in late afternoon, and maximum near sunrise; (3) Increase of winds during day, and decrease of winds at night.
气象变量的每日经常变化。 地球表面的一些日变化包括: (1)当地正午附近或之后的气温最高点和日出前的气温最低点; (2)傍晚的相对湿度和雾最低点和日出附近的最高点; (3)白天风增强,夜间风减弱。
"Divergence"
“分歧”
The condition that exists when the distribution of winds within a given area is such that there is a net horizontal flow of air outward from the region. In divergence at lower levels, the resulting deficit is compensated for by subsidence of air from aloft; consequently the air is heated and the relative humidity lowered making divergence a warming and drying process. Low-level divergent regions are areas unfavorable to the occurrence of clouds and precipitation. The opposite of convergence.
在给定区域内风的分布情况下存在的一种情况,即从该区域向外有一个净的水平气流。 在较低水平的散度中,由此产生的赤字通过从高处下沉的空气得到补偿; 因此,空气被加热,相对湿度降低,使散度变暖和干燥过程。 低层分散区是不利于云和降水发生的区域。 趋同的对立面。
"Doppler Radar"
「多普勒雷达」
Radar that measures speed and direction of a moving object such as wind.
测量移动物体(如风)的速度和方向的雷达。
"Downburst"
《唐突》
Wind blasting down from a thunderstorm or shower. A strong downdraft which induces an outburst of damaging winds on or near the ground. The sizes of downbursts vary from one-half mile or less to more than ten miles.
雷雨或阵雨形成的风向。 强烈的下沉气流,引起地面上或地面附近的破坏性风暴的爆发。 下击暴流的大小从半英里或更少到超过十英里不等。
"Drifting Snow"
《飘雪》
Created when winds lift snow from the surface and blow it to heights less than 6 feet(2 meters). No additional snow will be falling and visibility will not generally be reduced, but roadways can still get slippery.
当风把雪从表面吹起并把它吹到不到6英尺(2米)的高度时产生的。 没有额外的降雪,能见度也不会降低,但是道路仍然会变得很滑。
"Drizzle"
《毛毛雨》
Heavy mist or light, fine, continuous rain that will fall slowly, reducing visibility somewhat more than light rain. Water droplets will be less than .02 inch diameter (0.2mm and 0.5mm) in size. Drizzle can often be confused with light rain, however drizzle's water droplets will be smaller in size than those of rain.
大雾或小雨,晴朗,连续下雨,降雨缓慢,降低能见度多于小雨。 水滴直径小于0.02英寸(0.2毫米和0.5毫米)。 毛毛雨常常与小雨相混淆,但毛毛雨的水滴比小雨的水滴小。
"Drought"
“干旱”
Abnormal dryness for a particular region.
某一特定地区的异常干燥。
"Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate"
《气温垂直递减率》
Rate at which rising air cools or sinking air warms when no water phase changes are occurring; in both cases 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit per 1,000 feet.
当没有水相变化时,上升空气冷却或下降空气变暖的速率; 在这两种情况下,每1000英尺5.4华氏度。
"Dry Line"
“干线”
A boundary between the arm, dry air and the arm, humid air along which thunderstorms form, often found on the southern plains.
雷暴区,雷暴区一个边界,干燥的空气和一个边界,潮湿的空气沿着这个边界形成雷暴,常见于南部平原。
E
E

"Echo"
《回声》(Echo)
In radar, (1) the energy reflected or scattered by a target; (2) the radar scope presentation of the return from a target.
在雷达中,(1)目标反射或散射的能量; (2)目标返回的雷达范围表示。
"Eddy"
“艾迪”
A local irregularity of wind in a larger scale wind flow. Small scale eddies produces turbulent conditions.
在大尺度风流中的局部不规则风。 小尺度涡流产生湍流条件。
"Electromagnetic Radiation"
「电磁辐射」
Energy that moves in the form of disturbances in electrical and magnetic fields. Light and radio waves are examples.
在电场和磁场中以扰动形式运动的能量。 光波和无线电波就是例子。
"El Nino"
《厄尔尼诺》
Linked ocean and atmospheric events, which have world-wide effects, characterized by warming of water in the tropical Pacific from around the International Date Line to the coast of Peru.
海洋和大气事件联系在一起,对全世界都有影响,热带太平洋从国际日期变更线附近到秘鲁海岸的海水拥有属性变暖。
"Evaporation"
“蒸发”
The change from a liquid or a solid to a vapor or gas.
从液体或固体到蒸汽或气体的变化。
"Equinox"
“春分”
Times when the sun crosses the equator. The spring or vernal equinox occurs around March 21. The autumn's equinox is around September 21.
太阳穿过赤道的时间。 春分或春分大约发生在3月21日。 秋分大约在9月21日。
"Extratropical Cyclone"
温带气旋
A large scale weather system that forms outside the tropics with a low-pressure center.
在热带以外形成的大尺度天气系统,具有低气压中心。
F
F

"Flash Flood"
「山洪暴发」
Flooding with a rapid water rise.
急速上涨的洪水。
"Flurries"
《小雪》
Intermittently falling snow, generally short-lived. Flurries are the solid equivalent of "Rain Showers".
间歇性下雪,一般为短暂的。 小雪是“阵雨”的固体等效物。
"Foehn"
《焚风》
A warm, dry down slope wind; the warmness and dryness being due to adiabatic compression upon descent; characteristic of mountainous regions. A warm, dry wind that blows down out of the mountain slopes in winter and early spring.
一种温暖、干燥的下坡风; 由于下降过程中的绝热压缩而产生的温暖和干燥; 山区的特征。 在冬季和早春从山坡上吹下来的温暖干燥的风。
"Fog"
《雾》
A cloud with its base at the Earth's surface. Visibility is reduced to less than 5/8 statue mile (1 km). Clouds that form at ground level.
地球表面以云为基底的云。 能见度降低到低于5 / 8像英里(1公里)。 在地面上形成的云。
"Foggy"
“雾”
Fog is expected to form throughout the countryside, causing reduced visibility over large areas. The fog will generally be slow in breaking up, and may eventually result in a mixture of sun and clouds as the fog lifts and breaks up. Foggy conditions may be forecast after rain or showers overnight and into the early morning hours.
预计整个郊区会形成雾,造成大面积能见度下降。 一般来说,雾消散的速度会比较慢,而且随着雾的消散,最终可能会形成太阳和云的混合物。 天气预报说,夜间下雨或阵雨后,雾天可能持续到清晨。
"Fog Patches"
「雾斑」
Some fog is expected to form, but will generally be restricted to low lying areas. It may cause reduced visibility if encountered. Fog patches generally break up through the first part of the morning if they form overnight. They may be forecast after rain or showers at any time of the day, but generally fog occurs late at night or in the early morning hours.
预计会形成一些雾,但一般只限于低洼地区。 如果遇到这种情况,可能会导致能见度降低。 雾块如果在夜间形成,通常会在早晨的第一部分破裂。 天气预报可能会在一天中的任何时候下雨或阵雨之后出现,但一般在深夜或清晨时分出现大雾。
"Freezing"
《冰冻》
The phase change of water from liquid to solid.
水从液体到固体的相变。
"Freezing Drizzle"
《冰冻细雨》
Very fine supercooled liquid rain drops with a diameter of less than .02 inches in diameter (0.5mm).
直径小于0.02英寸(0.5毫米)的非常精细的过冷液体雨滴。
"Freezing Level"
「冰冻程度」
A level in the atmosphere at which the temperature is 0 degrees Celsius or 32 degrees Fahrenheit.
摄氏温度大气中温度为摄氏零度或华氏32度的水平。
"Freezing Nuclei"
“冻结核”
Small particles in the air that encourage the formation of ice.
空气中促进冰形成的微小颗粒。
"Freezing Rain"
《冰雨》
Supercooled liquid rain drops that freeze on contact with the ground. Freezing rain will form a layer of ice on any surface instantly.
过冷的液体雨滴与地面接触后会冻结。 冰雨会立刻在任何表面形成一层冰。
"Front"
「前线」
Boundary between air masses of different densities, and usually different temperatures.
不同密度的气团之间的边界,通常是不同的温度。
"Frontal Zone"
「前锋区」
A front or zone with a marked increase of density gradient; used to denote that fronts are not truly a "surface" of discontinuity but rather a "zone" of rapid transition of meteorological elements.
密度梯度明显增加的锋面或地带; 用来表示锋面不是真正的不连续的”表面” ,而是气象要素迅速过渡的”地带”。
"Frost"
《霜》(Frost)
Water vapor that has turned to ice on an object.
在物体表面结冰的水蒸气。
"Fujita Scale"
「藤田量表」
Wind damage scale created by Theodore Fujita.
由西奥多 · 藤田创建的风损害量表。
"Funnel Cloud"
“漏斗云”
A rotating column of air extending from a cloud, but not reaching the ground.
空气柱从云中伸出但没有到达地面的旋转气柱。
G
G

"Glaze"
“釉”
A coat of smooth ice created when supercooled drops of water spread out before freezing.
过冷的水滴在结冰前散开时形成的一层光滑的冰。
"Glory"
《荣耀》
Colored rings around an object's shadow.
物体阴影周围的彩色环。
"GOES Satellite"
“ GOES Satellite”
Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite. It is a U.S. weather satellite. These satellites orbit at altitudes of approximately 23,300 statute miles. At this height, the satellites orbit with the earth's rotation, and therefore give continuous, overlapping coverage of the cloud cover, surface temperatures, and vertical distributions of the atmospheric temperatures and humidities below. There are two such satellites - GOES East, centered over the equator at 75 degrees west longitude, and GOES West, centered at 135 degrees west. "GOES East" covers the Atlantic Ocean; "GOES West" covers the Pacific. Both cover large portions of eastern and western North and South America. GOES satellites provide visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery.
静止环境观测卫星。 这是一颗美国气象卫星。 这些卫星的轨道高度约为23300法定英里。 在这个高度,卫星的轨道与地球的自转相一致,因此对云层覆盖、地表温度以及大气温度和湿度的垂直分布进行连续、重叠的覆盖。 有两颗这样的卫星——西经75度,环绕赤道; 西经135度,环绕赤道。 “向东”涵盖大西洋; “向西”涵盖太平洋。 两者都覆盖了南北美洲东部和西部的大部分地区。 Goes 卫星提供可见光、红外和水蒸气图像。
"Gradient"
「渐变」
In meteorology, a horizontal decrease in value per unit distance of a parameter in the direction of maximum decrease; most commonly used with pressure, temperature, and moisture.
在气象学中,一个参数的单位距离值的水平下降,方向为最大下降; 最常用于压力、温度和湿度。
"Gradual Clearing"
「逐步结算」
Most of the sky will be covered in clouds, but you will see more and more sunshine throughout the forecast period. It may take the entire period for the sky to become less than half covered in clouds.
大部分的天空会被云层覆盖,但是在整个预报期间你会看到越来越多的阳光。 可能需要整个时间,天空才会不到一半被云层所覆盖。
"Graupel"
“ graubel”
Form of ice created when supercooled water droplets coat a falling ice crystal.
过冷水水滴覆盖在落下的冰晶上所形成的冰。
"Greenhouse Effect"
「温室效应」
Warming of a planet caused by the absorption and re-emission of infrared energy by molecules in the atmosphere.
由于大气中的分子吸收和再次发射红外线能量而引起的地球变暖。
"Ground Fog"
《地雾》
A layer of fog, often less than 200 feet high, that forms when the ground cools.
雾一层雾,通常不到200英尺高,在地面冷却时形成。
"Gulf Stream"
“墨西哥湾流”
A warm, well-defined, swift, and relatively narrow ocean current that flows from the Gulf of Mexico across the Atlantic to the European Coast. It helps warm Western Europe.
从墨西哥湾流过大西洋到达欧洲海岸的一种温暖、清晰、迅速和相对狭窄的洋流。 它有助于温暖西欧。
"Gust Front"
「阵风锋」
Wind flowing out from a thunderstorm.
从雷暴中吹出的风。
H
H

"Hail"
“欢呼”
Frozen rain droplets created by the updrafts of convective thunderstorms. Hail (balls of ice) is generally associated with severe thunderstorms.
对流性雷暴的上升气流产生的冰冻雨滴。 冰雹(冰球)通常与严重的雷暴有关。
"Halo"
《光环》
Any of the rings or arcs of light around the sun or moon caused by ice crystal clouds.
由冰晶云形成的环绕太阳或月亮的光圈或弧线。
"Hazy"
“朦胧”
The sky will appear to be covered in a very light fog when viewed off in the distance. Haze is created when fine dust particles disperse through a portion of the atmosphere. It is generally not noticeable when observed from directly above or below. Typically, haze does not impair visibility to any great extent.
从远处观看,天空似乎笼罩在一层薄雾之中。 当细小的尘埃颗粒分散通过部分大气层时,就会产生雾霾。 从上面或者下面直接观察时,它通常是不明显的。 雾霾通常不会在很大程度上影响能见度。
"Heat Lightning"
《热闪电》
Glowing flash in clouds. No thunder is heard because heat lightning is too far away.
云层中有闪光,没有雷声,因为热闪电离得太远了。
"Heavy Rain"
《暴雨》
The sky will be overcast and the precipitation continuous, strong enough to get things wet very quickly. There may be minor flooding of storm drains and roadways if the precipitation continues for very long. Heavy rain causes reduced visibility while driving.
天空乌云密布,降水持续不断,强度足以让东西很快变湿。 如果降雨持续很长时间,雨水渠和道路可能会发生小水浸。 大雨导致行车时能见度降低。
"High"
「高」
A short name for an area of high pressure. It is also called an anticyclone.
高压区: 高压区的简称。 它也被称为反气旋。
"Horse Latitudes"
“马纬度”
Latitudes where sailing ships often encountered extended periods of calm winds. In this region, ship's captains would order horses thrown overboard to preserve food and lighten the ships loads. The many horse carcasses seen floating on the still sea there earned the region its name.
航行船只经常遇到长时间平静风的高纬度地区。 在这一带,船长会命令把马扔到海里,以保存食物,减轻船上的负担。 许多马的尸体漂浮在平静的海面上,这为该地区赢得了它的名字。
"Humidity"
“湿度”
The amount of moisture in the air in the form of suspended (and often visible) water vapor.
空气中的水分以悬浮的(通常是可见的)水蒸气的形式存在的水分含量。
"Humiditex"
“ Humiditex”
A calculation combining air temperature and relative humidity, given in degrees Fahrenheit or Celsius. It represents the heating effect felt due to a lack of body moisture evaporation, and gives the average person a "feeling" for how hot and stuffy the air is. Humiditex is given only in the summer months.
以华氏度或摄氏度为单位,结合空气温度和相对湿度的计算。 它代表了由于身体缺乏水分蒸发而感受到的加热效果,并且给普通人一种空气是多么热和闷热的“感觉”。 Humiditex 只在夏季使用。
"Hurricane"
“飓风”
A violent storm that is made up by a tropical cyclone. A tropical cyclone: with winds of 74 mph or more.
一场由热带气旋组成的猛烈的风暴。 热带气旋: 风速每小时74英里或更高。
"Hydrogen"
“氢”
A gas that is the lightest chemical element. It can float balloons but it burns very easily.
一种气体,是最轻的化学元素。 它可以飘起气球,但是它很容易燃烧。
"Hydrosphere"
“水圈”
The Earth's water.
地球上的水。
"Hygrometer"
“湿度计”
An instrument that measures the humidity in the air.
湿度计测量空气中湿度的仪器。
I

"Ice Age"
《冰河世纪》
A geological time period during which sheets of ice cover extensive parts of the earth. A time in the Earth's past when large areas of the world's land were covered by thick ice. There were several ice ages, but only the last one is known as the Ice Age. This Ice Age took place during the Pleistocene epoch, from 2.5 million years to about 10,000 years ago.
冰盖覆盖地球大部分地区的一个地质时期。 在地球的过去,世界上大部分地区都被厚厚的冰层覆盖。 有几个冰河时期,但只有最后一个被称为冰河时期。 这个冰河时代发生在更新世,从250万年前到大约10000年前。
"Ice Caps"
《冰帽》
Thick sheets of ice covering large areas of land, especially in Antarctica and Greenland. Sheets like these covered much larger areas during ice ages.
厚厚的冰层覆盖大片陆地,尤其是在南极洲和格陵兰岛。 在冰河时期,这样的冰盖覆盖的面积要大得多。
"Ice Crystals"
“冰晶”
Very fine grains of ice falling slowly to the ground. Ice crystals are formed under very cold and dry conditions when the crystals are unable to stick together and form snow. Ice crystals can reduce visibility.
非常细小的冰粒慢慢地落到地面。 冰晶是在非常寒冷和干燥的条件下形成的,这时冰晶不能粘在一起形成雪。 冰晶会降低能见度。
"Ice Fog"
《冰雾》
A type of fog created when water vapor condenses at very cold air temperatures. Visibility is reduced.
在极冷的空气温度下水蒸气凝结时产生的一种雾。 能见度降低。
"Ice Pellets"
「冰粒」
Transparent pellets of continuously falling ice. They may be (1) hard grains that rebound on a striking a hard surface, or (2) pellets of snow encased in ice. Ice pellets start as falling snow that melts and then refreezes completely before reaching the ground. They bounce and make a rattling sound on contact with the ground. They are falling drops of frozen water, also called sleet.
连续下落的冰块形成的透明小球。 它们可能是(1)在坚硬表面上反弹的坚硬颗粒,或(2)包裹在冰中的雪球。 冰球一开始是落下的雪,融化后在到达地面之前完全冻结。 它们与地面接触时会反弹并发出咔嗒咔嗒的声音。 它们是从天而降的结冰的水滴,也叫雨夹雪。
"Ice Pellet Showers"
「冰球阵雨」
Ice pellet showers are the same as ice pellets, but the precipitation is intermittent rather than continuous.
冰球阵雨与冰球相同,但降水是间歇性的,而不是连续性的。
"Increasing Cloudiness"
「云量增加」
Skies will be mostly clear, but more and more cloud cover will develop throughout the forecast period. It will not become completely overcast before the end of the forecast period.
天空基本上是晴朗的,但在整个预报期间,云量会越来越多。 在预报期结束之前,天气不会变得完全阴沉。
"Insolation"
“曝晒”
The total solar radiation received at the Earth's surface; also, the rate of delivery of direct solar radiation per unit of horizontal surface area.
地球表面接收的太阳辐射总量,以及每单位水平表面积的太阳直接辐射率。
"Instability"
“不稳定”
A general term to indicate various states of the atmosphere in which spontaneous convection will occur when prescribed criteria are met; indicative of turbulence.
自然对流一个普通术语,用来表示满足规定条件时大气中发生自然对流的各种状态; 指示湍流。
"Intertropical Convergence Zone"
热带辐合带
The area near the equator, called "The Doldrums" by sailors, where the trade winds converge.
赤道附近的地区,被水手们称为“无风带” ,信风在此汇聚。
"Inversion"
“逆转”
Stable air condition in which air near the ground is cooler than air at a higher altitude. An increase in temperature with height. A reversal of the normal decrease with height in the troposphere; may also be applied to other meteorological properties.
一种稳定的空气状态,其中靠近地面的空气比高空的空气冷。 温度随高度的升高而升高。 正常下降与对流层高度的反转; 也可适用于其他气象特性。
"Isobar"
“伊索巴尔”
A line of equal or constant barometric pressure. Lines connecting points of equal atmospheric pressure on a weather map.
气压线等于或不变的气压线。 连接气象图上相等大气压力点的线。
"Isotherm"
“等温线”
Lines connecting points of equal or constant air temperatures on a weather map.
在气象图上连接相等或恒定气温点的线。
J
J

"Jetstreams"
“ Jetstreams”
A narrow band of upper atmosphere wind with speeds greater than 57 miles per hour.
风速大于每小时57英里的高层大气的一个窄带风。
K
K

"Katabatic Wind"
「下降风」
Any wind blowing down an incline. The same as a "gravity wind," a katabatic wind that is warm is called a "FOEHN". If it's cold, it's called a "fall wind," or a "BORA".
任何从斜坡上吹下来的风。 与“重力风”一样,温暖的下降风也被称为“焚风”。 如果天气很冷,就叫做“秋风”或者“波拉”。
"Kilopascal"
“ Kilopascal”
A metric unit of air pressure. Millibars divided by 10.
米制气压单位。毫巴除以10。
L
L

"Lake Effect Snow"
“湖泊效应下雪”
Cold, dry air blows over a lake (20 or more degrees warmer), the water evaporates into the colder, dry air, which rises to form turbulent clouds. Clouds then form in bands, dump heavy snow inland on the opposite side with heavy icing aloft. For example, the prevailing wind pushes moisture-laden air over colder terrain.
寒冷,干燥的空气吹过一个湖(20度或更高) ,水蒸发成寒冷,干燥的空气,上升形成湍流云。 然后形成成群的云,把大雪倾倒在对面的内陆,结上厚厚的冰。 例如,盛行的风把充满水分的空气吹过寒冷的地带。
"La Nina"
“拉尼娜”
El Nino's unruly twin sister. Scientists call La Nina "the girl". La nina arises when trade winds return to the eastern pacific, bring to the surface of the sea deeper, colder water that replaces the abnormally warm waters of her brother El Nino.
厄尔尼诺不守规矩的双胞胎妹妹。 科学家称拉尼娜现象为“女孩”。 当信风回到东太平洋时,拉尼娜现象就会出现,信风把更深、更冷的海水带到海面,取代了她哥哥厄尔尼诺现象中异常温暖的海水。
"Latent Heat"
“潜热”
Energy stored when water vapor evaporates into vapor or ice melts into liquid. It's released as heat when vapor condenses or water freezes.
当水蒸气蒸发成蒸汽或冰融化成液体时所储存的能量。 当蒸汽凝结或水结冰时,它以热量的形式释放出来。
"Lapse Rate"
「失效率」
The rate of decrease of an atmospheric variable with height; commonly refers to decrease of temperature with height.
大气变量随高度而减少的速率; 通常指温度随高度而减少。
"Lee Wave"
《利波》
Any stationary wave disturbance caused by a barrier in a fluid flow. In the atmosphere when sufficient moisture is present, this wave will be evidenced by lenticular clouds to the lee of mountain barriers; also called mountain wave or standing wave.
流体流动中由屏障引起的任何驻波干扰。 在大气中,当有足够的水汽存在时,这种波会被透镜状的云层证实到山脉屏障的背风处,也称为山浪或驻波。
"Lenticular Cloud"
荚状云
A species of cloud whose elements have the form of more or less isolated, generally smooth lenses or almonds. These clouds appear most often in formations of orographic origin, the result of lee waves, in which case they remain nearly stationary with respect to the terrain (standing cloud), but they also occur in regions without marked orography.
一种云,其成分或多或少具有孤立的形式,一般为光滑透镜或杏仁。 这些云层通常以地形起源的形态出现,这是背风波的结果,在这种情况下,它们相对于地形(站立云)几乎保持静止,但它们也出现在没有明显地形的地区。
"Lightning"
《闪电》(Lightning)
A visible discharge of electricity produced by a thunderstorm.
雷暴雨雷暴产生的可见的放电。
"Little Ice Age"
《小冰河世纪》
Period from the mid-16th century to the mid-19th century during which average global temperatures were lower than during previous and subsequent periods.
从16世纪中期到19世纪中期,全球平均气温低于以前和以后的时期。
"Long Wave"
《长波》
A south-to-north wave that appears in the normal west-to-east flow of upper atmosphere winds.
在高层大气正常的自西向东的气流中出现的由南向北的波。
"Low"
「低」
A short name for an area of low pressure, or a cyclone.
低气压区或气旋区的简称。
M
M

"Magnetic Field"
「磁场」
The area of force that surrounds a magnet. A magnetic field surrounds the Earth, but it is weakest at the poles.
磁铁周围的磁力区域。 地球周围有一个磁场,但磁场在两极最弱。
"Mainly Clear"
「主要清除」
The nighttime equivalent of "Mainly Sunny".
相当于夜间的“主要晴天”。
"Mainly Clear with a Chance of Showers"
「大致晴朗,可能有骤雨」
The sky is expected to be less than half covered with clouds, but there still may be brief periods of precipitation, generally occurring in the early evening.
预计天空不到一半被云层覆盖,但是仍然会有短暂的降水,通常发生在傍晚早些时候。
"Mainly Cloudy"
“大致多云”
Mostly covered in clouds, possibly with brief periods of sunshine. Cloud cover will be 5/8 to 7/8.
大部分被云层覆盖,可能有短暂的日照时间。 云量将在5 / 8到7 / 8之间。
"Mainly Cloudy with a Few Showers"
「大致多云有几阵骤雨」
Cloud cover as for "Mainly Cloudy", with light precipitation of short duration. The showers will be short-lived, but may interfere with outdoor activity. The ground will get damp.
云量为“大多云” ,有短时间的轻微降水。 阵雨将是短暂的,但可能会妨碍户外活动。 地面会变得潮湿。
"Mainly Cloudy with Isolated Showers"
「大致多云及局部地区有骤雨」
Cloud cover as for "Mainly Cloudy", with very light precipitation of short duration. The showers will be very short-lived and generally will not interfere with any outdoor activity. You may get a bit damp, but the shower will end quickly, and you will dry off almost immediately.
云量为“大致多云” ,短时间降水很少。 阵雨的持续时间很短,一般不会影响任何户外活动。 你可能会感到有点潮湿,但淋浴很快就会结束,而且你几乎会立即变干。
"Mainly Cloudy with Scattered Showers"
「大致多云及有零散骤雨」
Cloud cover as for "Mainly Cloudy", with light precipitation of short duration. The showers will come and go, and generally interfere with outdoor activities. The ground will get wet.
云量为“大多云” ,有短时间的轻微降水。 阵雨时有时无,通常会妨碍户外活动。 地面会变湿。
"Mainly Sunny"
《主要阳光灿烂》
Clear, with a small area of clouds visible. Cloud cover will be between 0/8 to 2/8.
清晰,可以看到一小片云层。 云量将在0 / 8到2 / 8之间。
"Mainly Sunny with a Chance of Showers"
「大致阳光充沛,有骤雨」
The sky is expected to be less than half covered with clouds, but there still may be brief periods of precipitation, generally occurring in the late afternoon.
天空被云层覆盖的程度预计不到一半,但是仍然会有短暂的降水,一般发生在下午晚些时候。
"Mainly Sunny with a Chance of T-storms"
“主要是晴天,有可能发生 t 型风暴”
The sky is expected to be less than half covered with clouds, but there still may be brief periods of showery precipitation with thunder and lightning, generally occurring at the end of the afternoon.
预计天空不到一半被云层覆盖,但是仍然会有短暂的阵雨,伴随着雷声和闪电,一般发生在下午结束时。
"Maritime Air Mass"
「海上气团」
An air mass that forms over an ocean, making it humid. It may be warm or cold.
海洋上空形成的气团,使其潮湿。 天气可能暖和,也可能冷。
"Meridional Flow"
“子午流”
A north to south to north flow of high altitude winds.
由北向南向北的高空风流。
"Mesocyclone"
“中气旋”
A rotating, upward-moving column of air in a thunderstorm that can spawn tornadoes.
龙卷风雷暴中旋转向上移动的气柱,可以产生龙卷风。
"Mesoscale"
「中尺度」
In meteorology, weather systems and events up to about 250 miles across.
在气象学中,天气系统和事件直径可达250英里。
"Meteor"
《流星》
Any natural phenomena in the atmosphere.
大气中的任何自然现象。
"Meteorological Bomb"
爆发性气旋
An extratropical cyclone in which the center pressure drops an average of one millibar an hour for 24 hours. Usually refers to storms off the U.S. east coast.
中心压力在24小时内平均每小时下降1毫巴的温带气旋。 通常指美国东海岸的风暴。
"Microburst"
「微爆」
A downburst less than 2.5 miles in diameter. A locally, extremely high-intensity column of descending air.
直径小于2.5英里的下击暴流。 下降空气柱局部的、极高强度的下降空气柱。
"Mid Latitudes"
“中纬度”
Region of the Earth outside the polar and tropical regions, between latitudes 23.5 degrees and 66.5 degrees.
地球极地和热带地区以外的地区,纬度23.5度至66.5度之间。
"Millibar"
“ Millibar”
Abbreviated mb. The metric unit of air pressure measurement. An internationally used unit of pressure equal to 1,000 dynes per square centimeter. It is convenient for reporting atmospheric pressure.
缩写 mb。 气压测量公制单位。 一种国际通用的压力单位,等于每平方厘米1,000达因。 它便于报告大气压力。
"Mercury"
《水星》
A silver-colored metal that is a liquid at normal temperatures. It is often used in thermometers and barometers.
银色金属一种银色金属,在正常温度下是液体。 它通常用于温度计和气压计。
"Mixed Precipitation"
“混合降水”
Mixed precipitation is a combination of liquid and solid precipitation, and is generally continuous. The precipitation falling must either consist of rain, snow and ice pellets, or rain and ice pellets. Some freezing rain can be mixed in as well. The concentration of precipitation types falling can change throughout the forecast period and is not quantified. Visibility will be reduced and roadways can be extremely slippery. A small accumulation of snow and/or ice pellets can be expected, depending on the proportion of solid to liquid precipitation.
混合沉淀是液相和固相沉淀的结合,一般是连续的。 降水必须由雨、雪和冰粒或雨和冰粒组成。 一些冻雨也可以混合在一起。 锋面雨下降的集中度在整个预测期间都会发生变化,而且不能量化。 能见度会降低,道路会非常滑。 根据固体和液体降水的比例,预计会有少量积雪和 / 或冰粒。
"Moist Adiabatic Lapse Rate"
潮湿的气温垂直递减率
The rate at which rising air cools or air warms when water is changing phases in the air. The rate varies.
当水在空气中改变相位时,上升空气冷却或上升空气变暖的速率。 这个比率是不同的。
"Monsoon"
《季候风》
A wind that changes direction according to the season. Persistent, widespread, seasonable winds from the ocean bring rain, while winter winds from the land are dry. Also, the rains that it brings to parts of the world in summer.
随季节而改变方向的风。 来自海洋的持续、广泛、及时的风带来降雨,而来自陆地的冬季风则是干燥的。 此外,夏季还会给世界部分地区带来降雨。
"Mountain Wave"
《山浪》
Up and down air motions created as wind flows over mountains. The standing wave or lee wave to the lee of a mountain barrier.
上下气流运动产生的风流过山脉。 向下波向山脉屏障的背风处的驻波或背风波。
"Mountain Winds"
《山风》
Winds that blow either up or down mountains, caused by different rates of heating and cooling of mountaintops and valleys.
由于山顶和山谷的加热和冷却速率不同而引起的上升或下降的风。
"Multi Cell Storms"
“多细胞风暴”
Thunderstorms consisting of clusters of single-cell thunderstorms.
由单胞雷暴群组成的雷暴。
N
N

"National Climatic Data Center"
“国家气候数据中心”
Also known as NCDC. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration office in Ashville, North Carolina, keeps climate records.
也称为 NCDC。 位于北卡罗来纳州阿什维尔的美国国家海洋和大气管理局办公室保存着气候记录。
"National Huricane Center"
“国家飓风中心”
Also known as NHC. National Weather Service office in Coral Gables, Florida, tracks and forecasts hurricanes and other weather in the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea, and parts of the Pacific.
也被称为 NHC。 位于科勒尔盖布尔斯的国家气象局办公室跟踪并预报了大西洋、墨西哥湾、加勒比海和部分太平洋地区的飓风和其他天气。
"National Meteorological Center"
国家气象中心
Also known as NMC. National Weather Service center in Camp Springs, Maryland, prepares worldwide computer forecasts. Hurricane and Severe Storms centers are part of NMC.
也称为 NMC。 位于马里兰州斯普林斯营的国家气象服务中心准备全球计算机预报。 飓风和强风暴中心是 NMC 的一部分。
"National Severe Storms Forecast Center"
国家强风暴预报中心
National Weather Service center on Kansas City, Missouri, issues watches for severe thunderstorms and tornadoes across the nation.
位于密苏里州堪萨斯城的国家气象服务中心发布全国范围内的雷暴和龙卷风警报。
"National Severe Storms Laboratory"
“国家严重风暴实验室”
Also known as NSSL. national Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, studies severe thunderstorms.
也称为 NSSL。 位于俄克拉荷马州诺曼市的美国国家海洋和大气管理局实验室正在研究剧烈雷暴。
"National Weather Service"
「国家气象局」
Federal agency observes and forecasts weather. Formerly the U.S. Weather Bureau. It's part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, which is part of the Department of Commerce.
联邦机构观测和预报天气。 前美国气象局。 它是美国美国国家海洋和大气管理局贸易委员会的一部分,隶属于商务部。
"Neap Tides"
《小潮》
Tides at the moon's first and third quarters, characterized by a small rise and fall.
在月亮的第一和第三节的潮汐,拥有属性有一个小的上升和下降。
"NexRad"
「新一代」
Next generation Weather Radar System. Installed in the 1990's by the National Weather Service, the Defense Department, and the Federal Aviation Administration.
新一代天气雷达系统。 20世纪90年代由国家气象局、国防部和联邦航空管理局安装。
"Nimbostraus"
“尼姆博斯特劳斯”
A principal cloud type, grey colored, often dark, the appearance of which is rendered diffuse by more or less continuously falling rain or snow, which in most cases reaches the ground. It is thick enough throughout to blot out the sun.
一种主要的云类,呈灰色,通常为深色,其外观由于大多数情况下到达地面的不断降雨或降雪而变得弥漫。 它的厚度足以遮住阳光。
"Numerical Forecasting or Prediction"
”数值预测或预报”
Use of computers to solve mathematical equations and produce weather forecasts.
利用计算机解数学方程和制作天气预报。
O

"Observatory"
「天文台」
A place or building where people study the stars and planets. Observatories of today use cameras linked with high-powered tracking telescopes.
天文台人们研究恒星和行星的地方或建筑物。 今天的天文台使用的照相机与高性能的跟踪望远镜相连。
"Obscuration"
《黑暗》(Obscuration)
Denotes sky hidden by surface-based obscuring phenomena and vertical visibility restricted overhead.
表示被基于地面的遮蔽现象所隐藏的天空,以及在头顶上限制垂直能见度。
"Occluded Front"
「封闭前线」
Also commonly called Occlusion, or Frontal Occlusion. A composite of two fronts as a cold front overtakes a warm front or quasi-stationary front.
也通常称为闭塞,或额闭塞。 由两条冷锋组成的复合锋超过了暖锋或准静止锋。
"One-Hundred-(100)-Year-Floods"
“百年(100)年洪水”
Water levels that, on average, should occur once a century. This is the same as a water level with a 100 to 1 chance of occurring in any single year.
水位平均每百年发生一次。 这与任何一年发生的概率为100:1的水位是一样的。
"Orographic"
「地形」
Of, pertaining to, or caused by mountains as in orographic clouds, orographic lift, or orographic precipitation.
山脉的山脉的、与山脉有关的或由山脉引起的,如地形云、地形抬升或地形降水。
"Overcast"
《阴天》(Overcast)
Totally covered with clouds, with clear skies not visible. Cloud cover will be 8/8.
完全被云层覆盖,看不见晴朗的天空。 云量将达到8 / 8。
"Ozone"
”臭氧”
Form of oxygen with molecules that consist of three oxygen atoms compared to two atoms for ordinary oxygen molecules.
由三个氧原子组成的氧分子的形式,相比之下,普通氧分子由两个氧原子组成。
"Ozone Hole"
”臭氧空洞”
The destruction of about 40 percent of the ozone in the stratosphere over Antarctica each spring.
每年春天,南极上空的平流层中约40% 的臭氧被破坏。
P
P

"Partial Clearing"
「部分结算」
Most of the sky will be covered in clouds, but you will see more and more sunshine throughout the forecast period. It will take longer than the forecast period for the sky to become less than half covered in clouds.
大部分的天空会被云层覆盖,但是在整个预报期间你会看到越来越多的阳光。 天空需要比预测的时间更长的时间才能减少一半的云层覆盖。
"Partly Cloudy"
“局部多云”
Clouds dominant, with little clear sky showing. Cloud cover will be between 3/8 and 4/8.
云层占据了主导地位,几乎看不到晴朗的天空。 云量将在3 / 8到4 / 8之间。
"Perigean Spring Tides"
《百年大潮》
Unusually high tides caused by the Earth and moon being at their nearest approach to each other, at the same time the Earth, sun and moon are in a nearly straight line.
由于地球和月球距离彼此最近而引起的潮汐异常高,同时地球、太阳和月球几乎呈直线。
"Phase Changes"
「阶段性转变」
Changes of a substance among solid, liquid and gas forms.
物质在固体、液体和气体形态之间的变化。
"POES Satellite"
“ POES 卫星”
Polar Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite. These satellites orbit along north-south tracks at nominal altitudes of approximately 530 statute miles. This is a comparatively low orbiting altitude, but it allows greater resolution of the weather features below, and better remote sensing of atmospheric soundings. POES satellite measure in the visible, infrared, water vapor, and various radiometric spectra, one of which is used to make ozone measurements. POES satellites also contain SARSAT (Search And Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking) equipment, which allows them to locate and relay emergency locater transmitter (ELT) and other emergency broadcasts from pilots and mariners in distress. Two POES satellites make 14 orbits each per day. This provides nearly complete coverage of the Earth below.
极地轨道运行环境卫星。 这些卫星沿南北轨道运行,标称高度约为530法定英里。 这是一个相对较低的轨道高度,但它允许更高的分辨率的天气特征下面,和更好的大气探测的遥感。 Poes 卫星测量可见光、红外线、水汽和各种辐射光谱,其中之一用于进行臭氧测量。 Poes 卫星还包含 SARSAT (搜索和救援卫星辅助跟踪)设备,使它们能够定位和转播紧急定位发射机(ELT)和遇险飞行员和水手发出的其他紧急广播。 两颗 POES 卫星每天绕行14圈。 这提供了几乎完全覆盖地球下面。
"Polar Front"
“极锋”
The semi permanent, semi continuous front separating air masses of tropical and polar origins.
半永久的,半连续的锋分离热带和极地起源的气团。
"Polar Regions"
“极地地区”
Regions of the Earth north of 66.5 degrees north latitude around the North Pole, and south of 66.5 degrees south latitude around the South Pole.
地球北纬66.5度以北的地区环绕北极,南纬66.5度以南的地区环绕南极。
"Polar Vortex"
《极地漩涡》
Strong, winter, upper-atmosphere winds around the polar regions.
强劲的冬季高层大气环绕着极地地区。
"Precipitation"
“降水量”
Any form of water in the form of droplets or ice that falls to the Earth, whether as rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
雨滴,冰雹落到地球上的以小水滴或冰块形式存在的任何形式的水,无论是雨、雪、雨夹雪还是冰雹。
"Precipitation Fog"
「降水雾」
Fog that forms when precipitation falls into cold air.
降水落入冷空气时形成的雾。
"Pre-Frontal Squall Lines"
「锋前飑线」
Lines of thunderstorms ahead of an advancing cold front.
前进的冷锋前的雷暴线。
"Pressure Gradient Force"
「气压梯度」
Force acting on air caused by air pressure differences.
气压差引起的作用在空气上的力。
Q

"Quasi-Stationary Front"
「准静止锋」
Also known as and commonly called Stationary Front. A front which is stationary or nearly so; conventionally, a front which is moving at a speed of less than 5 knots is generally considered to be quasi-stationary.
也称为和通常所谓的静止锋。 前锋是静止的或接近静止的; 通常,以小于5节的速度移动的前锋通常被认为是准静止的。
R
R

"Radar"
「雷达」
A device that bounces radio waves off an object in order to measure the distance to it and to keep track of its movements.
无线电波反射器一种使无线电波从物体上反射以测量物体距离并跟踪其运动的装置。
"Radiation"
「辐射」
The flow of particles and rays, such as light and radio waves. It also means the energy released from an atom.
粒子流粒子和射线的流动,如光和无线电波。 这也意味着原子释放的能量。
"Radiation Fog"
《辐射雾》
Fog characteristically resulting when traditional cooling of the Earth's surface lowers the air temperature near the ground to or below its initial dew point on calm, clear nights.
当地球表面传统的冷却方式使接近地面的空气温度降低到或低于最初的露点时,在风平浪静、晴朗的夜晚,就会产生雾。
"Rain"
《雨》
Precipitation that reaches the Earth as large droplets. It may begin as smaller droplets high in the sky, but as the droplets fall, they intermingle and combine to become larger droplets. We classify rain by the amount that falls and by the results of the free-fall mixing action, describing rain as light, moderate, or heavy.
以大水滴形式到达地球的降水。 它开始时可能是高空中较小的水滴,但当水滴落下时,它们混合并结合成较大的水滴。 我们根据降雨量和自由落体混合作用的结果将降雨分为轻、中、重三类。
"Rain Forests"
“雨林”
Forests growing in tropical areas that have heavy rainfall.
生长在降雨量大的热带地区的森林。
"Rainbow"
《彩虹》
Arc or circle of colored light caused by the refraction and reflection of light by water droplets.
由于水滴对光线的折射和反射而形成的有色光的弧或圆。
"Rain Gauge"
「雨量计」
An instrument that collects precipitation, enabling weather observers to measure the amount.
收集降水量的仪器,使天气观测者能够测量降水量。
"Rain and Snow"
《雨雪奇缘》
A mix of both rain and snow is expected for the forecast period. The precipitation will be continuous. The concentration of rain and snow can change throughout the forecast period and is not quantified. Small accumulations of snow can sometimes occur depending on the proportion of snow to rain. Visibility will be reduced and roadways can be very slippery.
预计天气预报期间会有雨雪天气。 降水将是连续的。 雨雪的浓度在整个预报期间都可能发生变化,而且不能量化。 根据降雪与降雨的比例,有时会出现小量积雪。 能见度会降低,道路会非常滑。
"Rain and Snow Mixed"
《雨雪交加》
A mixture of snow and rain. The proportion of snow to rain is not quantified.
雨雪的混合物。雪与雨的比例无法量化。
"Rain Changing to Snow"
《雨变雪》
At the beginning of the forecast period, the precipitation will start as rain, then completely change over to snow by the end of the forecast period. There may be a brief period of freezing rain and/or ice pellets during the transition. The precipitation will be continuous throughout the forecast period. Visibility will be reduced and roadways will begin to ice over as the temperature drops and the precipitation changes to snow, resulting in very slippery roads and dangerous driving conditions.
在预报期开始的时候,降水会以降雨的形式出现,到预报期结束的时候,降水会完全变成降雪。 在过渡期间可能会有短暂的冻雨和 / 或冰粒。 在整个预报期间,降水将是连续的。 随着气温下降和降水变成雪,能见度降低,道路开始结冰,导致道路非常滑,行车条件危险。
"Rain or Snow"
《雨或雪》
The type of precipitation expected to fall will be either rain or snow throughout the forecast period. The precipitation will be continuous. If the precipitation is snow, accumulations can be significant, visibility will be reduced and roadways can be slippery.
在整个预报期间,预期降水的类型将是雨或雪。 降水将是连续的。 如果是降雪,积雪会很大,能见度会降低,道路会很滑。
"Rain Showers"
《阵雨》
Intermittently falling rain, generally short-lived.
间歇性降雨,一般持续时间短。
"RDF"
“ RDF”
Rain Drop Frequency, a term used in radar weather summaries.
雨滴频率,雷达天气总结中使用的术语。
"Relative Humidity"
相对湿度
The ratio between the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold, at a given temperature and pressure. This is expressed as a percentage.
在给定的温度和压力下,空气中的水蒸气量与空气所能容纳的最大水蒸气量之比。 这是以百分比表示的。
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